- 5 Why Analysis
- Actual Cycle Time
- Actual Run Rate
- All Time
- Autonomous Maintenance
- Availability Loss
- Best Practice
- Cycle Time
- Cycle Time Analysis
- Design Cycle Time
- Down Time
- Down Time Loss
- Equipment Failure
- Equipment Loss
- Error Proofing
- First Pass Yield
- Focused Improvement
- Fully Productive Time
- Good Parts
- IDA (Information, Decision, Action)
- Ideal Cycle Time
- Ideal Run Rate
- Idling and Minor Stops
- Lean Manufacturing
- Make Ready
- Material Shortage
- Nameplate Capacity
- Net Run Time
- OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness)
- OEE Availability
- OEE Factors
- OEE Losses
- OEE Performance
- OEE Quality
- Performance Loss
- Planned Production Time
- Planned Stop
- Plant Shutdown
- Preventive Maintenance
- Process Defects
- Production Counts
- Production Rejects
- Quality Loss
- Reason Code
- Reduced Speed
- Reduced Yield
- Reject Parts
- Rework Parts
- Root Cause Analysis
- Run Rate
- Run Time
- Schedule Loss
- Setup and Adjustments
- Shift Time
- SIC (Short Interval Control)
- Six Big Losses
- Six Sigma
- Slow Cycle
- Slow Cycle Threshold
- Small Stop
- Small Stop Threshold
- SMED (Single-Minute Exchange of Dies)
- Speed Loss
- Standardized Work
- Startup Rejects
- Stop Time
- Takt Time
- TEEP (Total Effective Equipment Performance)
- Theory of Constraints
- Top Losses
- Total Parts
- TPM (Total Productive Maintenance)
- Unplanned Stop
- Visual Factory
- Visual OEE™
- World-Class OEE
A simple process originally created by Sakichi Toyoda at the Toyota Motor Company for identifying the root cause behind a particular problem. Start with a problem definition, and keep asking “why” until the root cause is uncovered.
A Lean Manufacturing process that creates an organized work area. 5S has five steps: Sort (eliminate unneeded items), Set (organize remaining items), Shine (clean and inspect the work area), Standardize (document standards for the area), Sustain (apply and audit the standards).
The actual rate of production, when it is running. In OEE, calculated as Total Count divided by Run Time. Used in calculating OEE Performance. A variation of the calculation uses Actual Cycle Time instead.
24 hours in a day, 7 days in a week. All time refers to every minute of every day.
Indicator above production line to signal production conditions. Often uses green/yellow/red colors to indicate status.
A process from TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) for improving machine OEE by engaging operators to complete routine maintenance, inspection, and lubrication activities.
One of the three OEE Losses. Availability takes into account Equipment Failures and Setup and Adjustments. An Availability score of 100% means that the process is always running during Planned Production Time.
Methods that are considered “state of the art” by the most respected in an industry. Successful companies use different methods than unsuccessful companies.
A process for creating an expanded world of ideas and possibilities. Brianstorming is a divergent problem solving process that is intended to create a broad range of ideas that can then be refined by a root cause process.
Unproductive time where the process is scheduled not to run because the crew is scheduled to be away from the line. Breaks are typically excluded from OEE calculations.
The manufacturing process is scheduled for production and is not running because of a planned Setup, Make Ready, or Adjustment event. Changeovers are a type of Planned Stop and affect OEE Availability.
The step of the manufacturing process that acts as a bottleneck to the throughput of the entire process. OEE should always be measured at the constraint as it is the slowest step in the process.
An action to counter or mitigate a manufacturing loss. A manufacturing loss may benefit from multiple countermeasures including immediate actions to prevent the loss from getting worse, short term fixes and long term root cause fixes.
The time to produce one part. Inverse of Run Rate.
Any part that is not right first time. Defects may be reworked, or scrapped. All defects are a loss to OEE Quality.
See Ideal Cycle Time.
The manufacturing process is scheduled for production and is not running because of an unplanned event such as a machine break down. Equipment Failure is one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Availability.
Time when the plant is scheduled to run, but is not Fully Productive due to one of the Six Big Losses to OEE.
Making a Good Part, ‘right first time’ without rejecting it to be scrapped or reworked.
A highly effective process for reducing unplanned stop time. A small cross functional team selects a loss (often from a top loss report), and apply root cause analysis or 5 why analysis to identify potential causes and fixes. Focused Improvement is a technique from Lean Manufacturing and is sometimes known as a kaizen blitz.
One of the easiest and most effective ways to improve results by focusing on three factors that drive results (Information, Decisions, and Actions).
The manufacturing process is running, but is experiencing brief pauses in production that are not long enough to be tracked as Equipment Failures. This loss is often called Small Stops. Idling and Minor Stops is one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Performance.
A stage within a changeover process in which machine settings are fine-tuned before production (often based on the inspection of a first-off part). Make Ready events are a type of Planned Stop and affect OEE Availability.
Framework for measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of a process, by breaking it down into three constituent components (the OEE Factors). OEE helps you see and measure a problem so you can fix it, and provides a standardized method of benchmarking progress.
One of the three OEE Factors. Takes into account Availability Loss (any events that stop planned production for an appreciable length of time). Must be measured in an OEE program, usually by recording the duration of Unplanned Stops and Planned Stops.
One of the three OEE Factors. Takes into account Performance Loss (factors that cause the process to operate at less than the maximum possible speed, when running). Must be measured in an OEE program, usually by comparing Actual Cycle Time (or Actual Run Rate) to Ideal Cycle Time (or Ideal Run Rate).
The manufacturing process is scheduled for production and is not running because of a planned event such as a changeover, setup, or make ready event. Planned Stop time is one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Availability.
Time when the factory has no plans to run production (typically because the factory is closed or has no shifts scheduled). Plant Shutdown is a Schedule Loss to TEEP. Plant Shutdown time is excluded from OEE calculations.
A process from TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) for improving OEE by carrying out maintenance activity based on either calendar time (replacing parts every few months) or loss data (replacing a part one week before it has historically failed).
The manufacturing process is producing defective parts (also known as reject parts) during steady-state production. Often this loss is called Production Rejects. Process Defects are one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Quality.
Parts produced during steady-state production.
An identification number or classification applied to an Event subcategory. Used to tabulate statistics regarding Events. Makes it much easier to get a handle on losses, especially down time loss.
The manufacturing process is running, but is running slower than the Ideal Cycle Time. This loss is often called Speed Loss. Reduced Speed is one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Performance.
The manufacturing process is producing defective parts (also known as reject parts) during a period of time immediately after an Equipment Failure event or a Setup and Adjustment event. Often this loss is called Startup Rejects. Reduced Yield is one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Quality.
Produced parts that do not meet quality standards right first time. Calculated by subtracting Good Parts from Total Parts. In the Six Big Losses, Reject Parts are either produced during steady-state production (Process Defects), or on startup after a stop event (Reduced Yield).
Rejected parts that can be reworked and sold to the customer. Reworked parts do not affect the OEE calculation as they were not right first time. OEE does not make a distinction between parts that can be reworked and parts that are scrapped.
A method of resolving a non-conformance, by tracing back from the end failure to its original (root) cause. The basic tool for understanding and eliminating the sources of productivity losses.
The production rate when actually producing (running). Inverse of Cycle Time.
The manufacturing process is scheduled for production and is running. Run Time is calculated by subtracting down time from planned production time. Run time includes time when the process could be experiencing small stops, reduced speed, and making reject parts.
Time when the plant is not scheduled for production (e.g. plant shutdown, no orders, breaks and lunches). Schedule loss is excluded from OEE, and is a loss to TEEP.
The manufacturing process is scheduled for production and is not running because of a planned event such as a changeover or part change. This loss often includes Changeover, Make Ready events. Setup and Adjustments is one of the Six Big Losses to OEE and affects OEE Availability.
The period of time where a shift is scheduled to be running the machine.
A factory-floor process for engaging operators and supervisors to maximize OEE by seeking quick improvement opportunities that they can implement in full during the shift. SIC (Short Interval Control) uses Six Big Loss data to enable teams to make ongoing course corrections during the shift.
Six categories of productivity losses that are almost universally experienced in manufacturing: Equipment Failure, Setup and Adjustments, Idling and Minor Stops, Reduced Speed, Process Defects, and Reduced Yield. Drill down into the three OEE Factors, and you will reach the Six Big Losses. Measure your process with OEE, and improve your process by addressing the Six Big Losses.
Systematic quality program that strives to limit defects to six standard deviations from the mean. One of the major focuses of Six Sigma is to reduce process variation. In most companies, Quality Loss will be by far the smallest of the OEE Losses. A Six Sigma or equivalent program may be necessary to maintain focus on quality improvements.
Program for reducing setup time. Named after the goal of reducing setup times to under ten minutes (representing time with one digit). Often a part of programs to improve OEE Availability.
Production time lost to equipment running below maximum rated speed. An alternative term for Reduced Speed in the Six Big Losses. Contributes to OEE Performance.
Document important machine operation and leadership activities to ensure that best practices are consistently captured and followed. It is extremely important that standardized work documents are treated as ‘living’ documents that are regularly updated as improvements are made.
Production rate needed to meet customer demand. Where sales and business planning meets the factory floor.
TEEP (Total Effective Equipment Performance) is a performance metric for measuring the true capacity of your manufacturing operation. TEEP takes into account equipment losses (as measured by OEE) and schedule losses (as measured by Utilization). It is calculated by multiplying OEE % by Utilization %.
A methodology for improving productivity that was proposed by by Eli Goldratt in his bestselling 1984 novel The Goal. Dr. Goldratt proposed that every complex system, including manufacturing processes, consists of multiple linked activities, one of which acts as a constraint upon the entire system (i.e., the constraint is the “weakest link in the chain”).
Create an easily understood pareto-style report for quickly identifying losses to OEE. A good top losses report includes all Six Big Losses with Reason Codes for Stop Times to create a balanced perspective on where the team should prioritize their time.
Maintenance system covering the life of all equipment: planning, manufacturing, maintenance and improving performance. OEE is a metric for defining equipment effectiveness in a TPM program.
The percentage of calendar time that is used for production. Utilization is an important part of TEEP. Utilization takes into account the losses of Production Not Scheduled, and Plant Not Open.
A concept for reducing communication waste on the factory floor through the use of real time indicators such as signs, charts, and scoreboards. Andon indicators are often an important tool in the visual factory.
Plant floor real-time display of live OEE data for maximum team involvement. Visual OEE™ displays make improvement everyone’s job.